Probable signs of pregnancy include Chadwick's Sign, Goodell's Sign, Hegar's Sign, ballottement, and a positive pregnancy test. These findings are probably related to pregnancy, but could have other explanations.
Supine hypotensive syndrome is caused by a pregnant patient's heavy uterus compressing the inferior vena cava when lying supine. Educate patients to rest either in a side-lying position, or with a pillow under one hip.
Positive signs of pregnancy include identification of fetal heart sounds, fetal movement felt by a healthcare provider, and ultrasound visualization of the fetus. There is no other explanation for these findings than pregnancy.
First trimester lab testing should include: CBC, urinalysis, STI testing, pap test, blood typing (including Rh factor), rubella titer, Hepatitis B, and HIV. High risk patients may also require quantitative hCG level testing.
Educate patients about warning signs in pregnancy for which they should notify their provider: diarrhea, fever, chills, severe abdominal cramping or pain, severe vomiting, vaginal bleeding, and decreased fetal activity should be reported and assessed fully!
During amniocentesis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are measured. HIGH levels of AFP are associated with neural tube defects. LOW levels of AFP are associated with chromosomal disorders (such as Down Syndrome).